peri cintaku

01 November 2012 00:25:19 Dibaca : 195

di dalam hatiku hanya satu nama yang ada di tulus hati ku ingini

kesetiaan yang indah takkan tertandingi hanyalah dirimu satu peri cintaku

benteng begitu tinggi sulit untuk ku gapai..

 

akununutk kamu, kamu untuk aku

namun semua apa mungkin iman kita yang berbeda,,

tuhan memang satu, kita yang tak sama

haruskah aku lantas pergi meski cinta takkan pernah pergi

penghianat cinta

01 November 2012 00:17:06 Dibaca : 182

aku tak akan pernah lupa dengan dirinya yang telah membuat aku sakit hati :@

sandiwara cinta

jujurlah sayang, aku tak mengapa

biar semua, jelas dan berbeda

jika nanti aku yang harus pergi

kuterima walau sakit hati...

buat seseorang yang kubenci.....!!!!

artikel of biology

01 November 2012 00:13:33 Dibaca : 390

1. Dudeck O, Ricke J. Advances in regional chemotherapy of the liver. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2011;8:1057-1069

2. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM. et al. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61:69-90

3. Zhou BB, Zhang H, Damelin M. et al. Tumour-initiating cells: challenges and opportunities for anticancer drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2009;8:806-823

4. Al-Hajj M, Wicha MS, Benito-Hernandez A. et al. Prospective identification of tumorigenic breast cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2003;100:3983-3988

5. Singh SK, Hawkins C, Clarke ID. et al. Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells. Nature. 2004;432:396-401

6. Collins AT, Berry PA, Hyde C. et al. Prospective identification of tumorigenic prostate cancer stem cells. Cancer Res. 2005;65:10946-10951

7. Kim CF, Jackson EL, Woolfenden AE. et al. Identification of bronchioalveolar stem cells in normal lung and lung cancer. Cell. 2005;121:823-835

8. Prince ME, Sivanandan R, Kaczorowski A. et al. Identification of a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell properties in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2007;104:973-978

9. Ricci-Vitiani L, Lombardi DG, Pilozzi E. et al. Identification and expansion of human colon-cancer-initiating cells. Nature. 2007;445:111-115

10. Li C, Heidt DG, Dalerba P. et al. Identification of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:1030-1037

11. Schatton T, Murphy GF, Frank NY. et al. Identification of cells initiating human melanomas. Nature. 2008;451:345-349

12. Suetsugu A, Nagaki M, Aoki H. et al. Characterization of CD133+ hepatocellular carcinoma cells as cancer stem/progenitor cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;351:820-824

13. Ma S, Chan KW, Hu L. et al. Identification and characterization of tumorigenic liver cancer stem/progenitor cells. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:2542-2556

14. Yin S, Li J, Hu C. et al. CD133 positive hepatocellular carcinoma cells possess high capacity for tumorigenicity. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1444-1450

15. Yang ZF, Ho DW, Ng MN. et al. Significance of CD90+ cancer stem cells in human liver cancer. Cancer Cell. 2008;13:153-166

16. Yang ZF, Ngai P, Ho DW. et al. Identification of local and circulating cancer stem cells in human liver cancer. Hepatology. 2008;47:919-928

17. Zhu Z, Hao X, Yan M. et al. Cancer stem/progenitor cells are highly enriched in CD133+CD44+ population in hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:2067-2078

18. Yamashita T, Ji J, Budhu A. et al. EpCAM-positive hepatocellular carcinoma cells are tumor-initiating cells with stem/progenitor cell features. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1012-1024

19. Kimura O, Takahashi T, Ishii N. et al. Characterization of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)+ cell population in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:2145-2155

20. Haraguchi N, Ishii H, Mimori K. et al. CD13 is a therapeutic target in human liver cancer stem cells. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3326-3339

21. Yang W, Yan HX, Chen L. et al. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling contributes to activation of normal and tumorigenic liver progenitor cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4287-4295

22. Ma S, Chan KW, Lee TK. et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase discriminates the CD133 liver cancer stem cell populations. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1146-1153

23. Bauer N, Fonseca AV, Florek M. et al. New insights into the cell biology of hematopoietic progenitors by studying prominin-1 (CD133). Cells Tissues Organs. 2008;188:127-138

24. Salnikov AV, Kusumawidjaja G, Rausch V. et al. Cancer stem cell marker expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases is not sufficient as single prognostic parameter. Cancer Lett. 2009;275:185-193

25. Ren K, Jin H, Bian C. et al. MR-1 modulates proliferation and migration of human hepatoma HepG2 cells through myosin light chains-2 (MLC2)/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Akt signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35598-35605

26. Zhang H, Zhang S, He H. et al. RasGAP-derived peptide 38GAP potentiates the cytotoxicity of cisplatin through inhibitions of Akt, ERK and NF-kappaB in colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Cancer Lett. 2011;308:62-70

27. Shen L, Zeng S, Chen J. et al. E1A inhibits the proliferation of human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells) by apoptosis induction through activation of HER-2/Neu/Caspase-3 pathway. Med Oncol. 2008;25:222-228

28. Sun HX, He HW, Zhang SH. et al. Suppression of N-Ras by shRNA-expressing plasmid increases sensitivity of HepG2 cells to vincristine-induced growth inhibition. Cancer Gene Ther. 2009;16:693-702

29. Ghods AJ, Irvin D, Liu G. et al. Spheres isolated from 9L gliosarcoma rat cell line possess chemoresistant and aggressive cancer stem-like cells. Stem Cells. 2007;25:1645-1653

30. Chiba T, Kita K, Zheng YW. et al. Side population purified from hepatocellular carcinoma cells harbors cancer stem cell-like properties. Hepatology. 2006;44:240-251

31. Fischer M, Yen WC, Kapoun AM. et al. Anti-DLL4 inhibits growth and reduces tumor-initiating cell frequency in colorectal tumors with oncogenic KRAS mutations. Cancer Res. 2011;71:1520-1525

32. Enguita-German M, Schiapparelli P, Rey JA. et al. CD133+ cells from medulloblastoma and PNET cell lines are more resistant to cyclopamine inhibition of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway than CD133- cells. Tumour Biol. 2010;31:381-390

33. Janikova M, Skarda J, Dziechciarkova M. et al. Identification of CD133+/nestin+ putative cancer stem cells in non-small cell lung cancer. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2010;154:321-326

34. Zhang K, Waxman DJ. PC3 prostate tumor-initiating cells with molecular profile FAM65Bhigh/MFI2low/LEF1low increase tumor angiogenesis. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:319-331

35. Marchini C, Montani M, Konstantinidou G. et al. Mesenchymal/stromal gene expression signature relates to basal-like breast cancers, identifies bone metastasis and predicts resistance to therapies. PLoS One. 2010;5:e14131

36. Ma S, Tang KH, Chan YP. et al. miR-130b Promotes CD133(+) liver tumor-initiating cell growth and self-renewal via tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;7:694-707

37. Wang XQ, Ongkeko WM, Chen L. et al. Octamer 4 (Oct4) mediates chemotherapeutic drug resistance in liver cancer cells through a potential Oct4-AKT-ATP-binding cassette G2 pathway. Hepatology. 2010;52:528-539

38. Cao L, Zhou Y, Zhai B. et al. Sphere-forming cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties in human hepatoma cell lines. BMC Gastroenterol. 2011;11:71-81

39. Xie G, Zhan J, Tian Y. et al. Mammosphere cells from high-passage MCF7 cell line show variable loss of tumorigenicity and radioresistance. Cancer Lett. 2011;316:53-61

40. Tsai KS, Yang SH, Lei YP. et al. Mesenchymal stem cells promote formation of colorectal tumors in mice. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:1046-1056

41. Izumi N. Prediction and prevention of intrahepatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology Research. 2012;42:226-232

42. Kashyap V, Rezende NC, Scotland KB. et al. Regulation of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation involves a mutual regulatory circuit of the NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2 pluripotency transcription factors with polycomb repressive complexes and stem cell microRNAs. Stem Cells Dev. 2009;18:1093-1108

43. Kim D, Kim CH, Moon JI. et al. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells by direct delivery of reprogramming proteins. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:472-476

44. Yamashita T, Budhu A, Forgues M. et al. Activation of hepatic stem cell marker EpCAM by Wnt-beta-catenin signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2007;67:10831-10839

45. Fan X, Khaki L, Zhu TS. et al. NOTCH pathway blockade depletes CD133-positive glioblastoma cells and inhibits growth of tumor neurospheres and xenografts. Stem Cells. 2010;28:5-16

referensi general biology

01 November 2012 00:11:07 Dibaca : 222

1. Dudeck O, Ricke J. Advances in regional chemotherapy of the liver. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2011;8:1057-1069

2. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM. et al. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61:69-90

3. Zhou BB, Zhang H, Damelin M. et al. Tumour-initiating cells: challenges and opportunities for anticancer drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2009;8:806-823

4. Al-Haj

general og biologi...

01 November 2012 00:09:21 Dibaca : 324

Because of different experiment methods and cell types in every research group, the confusion results have been found in HCC. Recently, CD90 and CD13 have been used to identify HCC TICs, while CD44 and CD24 are mainly used as breast or pancreatic TICs markers [4, 10, 16, 20]. Using flow cytometry assay, we found the low expression of CD90, CD13 or CD44, and high expression of CD24 in HCC Bel7404, Bel7402, Huh7, SMMC7721 and HepG2 cells (data not shown). Otherwise, EpCAM or CD133 as an efficient marker of TICs has been proved by many researches in HCC, especially in Huh7 cells. Thus, we chose EpCAM and CD133 as the biomarkers of TICs.

In spite of single marker, two markers are combined to identify and isolate TICs precisely. CD133+CD44+ phenotype in SMMC7721, MHCC-LM3, and MHCC-97L cells [17], CD133+ALDH+ phenotype in PLC8024 cells [22], and CD45-CD90+ phenotype isolated from human tumor specimens and blood samples [16] are significantly more tumorigenic both in vitro and in vivo. Using other combination of surface markers, sorted Huh7 cells can not generate tumors in NOD/SCID mice [17]. However, we found that only 500 CD133+EpCAM+ cells formed tumors in NOD/SCID mice, rather than single marker positive cells. It was notable that CD133+EpCAM+ cells also possessed more characteristics of TICs rather than CD133+EpCAM-, CD133-EpCAM+ or CD133-EpCAM- cells in vitro. It suggests that CD133+EpCAM+ are the effective combination of TICs surface markers in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, recent clinic researches have shown that CD133 or EpCAM, associated with recurrence, alone may not be sufficient to serve as prognostic parameter of HCC [24, 41]. It is worthwhile for further investigation of CD133 and EpCAM in clinical significance.

CD133+EpCAM+ cells in SP cells were much more than in non-SP cells. Enriched SP cells were mainly composed of CD133+EpCAM+ cells. These data suggested that cells, co-expressing CD133 and EpCAM, possessed the characteristics of SP cells. Recently, SP cells are proved to be associated with drug-resistant [30]. Consistent with these results, our study showed that CD133+EpCAM+ cells possessed drug-resistant characteristic.

Stem cell-related genes Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 are important for proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation of stem cells [42-43]. Stem cell-related genes have been reported in TICs recently [13, 18]. In this study, stem cell-related genes were also up-regulated in CD133+EpCAM+ cells. These might be the causes for the enhancement of self-renewal and differentiation in CD133+EpCAM+ cells, but need for further investigation.

 Figure 6 

CD133+EpCAM+ cells possessed other characteristics of TICs. A. Various phenotypes were collected, and then the expression of Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 were measured by real-time PCR. Data were from triple independent experiments. B. Cell spheres were imaged by microscope (x200 fields) after cultured in modified medium for 7 days. Data were shown as mean ± SD of three independent experiments. *P<0.05 to CD133-EpCAM-, †P<0.05 to CD133-EpCAM+, #P<0.05 to CD133+EpCAM-.

Int J Biol Sci Image (Click on the image to enlarge.)
 Figure 7 

Raised tumorigenicity of CD133+EpCAM+ cells was detected in NOD/SCID mice. A. The indicated numbers of various phenotypes were injected subcutaneously in NOD/SCID mice for 90 days. The incidence of tumors was examined bi-weekly. B. 1,000 CD133+EpCAM+ or CD133-EpCAM- cells were injected in the indicated place for 90 days. C. The tumors were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. *P<0.05 to CD133-EpCAM-, †P<0.05 to CD133-EpCAM+, #P<0.05 to CD133+EpCAM-.

Int J Biol Sci Image (Click on the image to enlarge.)

To observe the effects of CD133 or EpCAM, CD133+EpCAM- cells were compared with CD133-EpCAM+ cells in Huh7 cells. Exception of high expression of stem-related genes in CD133+EpCAM-, there was no significant difference between two markers in vitro. In vivo, CD133+EpCAM- cells had been found more tumorigenic potential than CD133-EpCAM+ cells. It suggested that CD133 had more relative characteristics of TICs than EpCAM. Moreover, EpCAM has been proved to be a direct transcriptional target in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway [44]. CD133 has been decreased through the blockade of Notch pathway [45]. It is worthwhile for further study of these signaling pathways on CD133 and EpCAM in Huh7 cells.

Although the high expression of EpCAM in Bel7402 cells, there was no obvious difference between EpCAM+ and EpCAM- cells in vitro, including colony and sphere formation ability (data not shown). Meanwhile the expression of CD133 and EpCAM were low in HepG2 cells, which could not form subcutaneous tumor in ATCC. It was hypothesized that there might be another surface marker in Bel7402 or HepG2 cells with different cellular origin.

After flow cytometry sorting, CD133+EpCAM+ cells differentiated into the other phenotypes in medium with FBS, which was confirmed by other group [18]. Recently, it has been reported that spheroid cells expressed TICs characteristics [38]. Taken together, the combination of multi-marker sorting and the spheres formation might be the better strategy to maintain the TICs characteristics in a restricted period of time. It will be more suitable for studying basic biology of TICs and screening new drug targets.

In conclusion, our data suggest that CD133+EpCAM+ phenotype precisely represented the characteristics of TICs in Huh7 cells, including self-renewal, differentiation, resistance, tumorigenicity. It may promote the basic research on TICs and drug-screening.

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